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Applications of Computers in Pharmacy

BPharmacy, 2nd Semester, 2021 - Notes

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-By Abdi Ahmed Ebrahim -Oct. 06, 2021

Applications of Computers in Pharmacy BPharmacy 2nd semester 2021 Previous Year's Question Papers/Notes Download - HK Technical PGIMS

Applications of computers in Pharmacy  Computer can provide critical information on drug interactions, usage, storage, mode of action, side effects etc. It also used for patient counseling.  Computers are used to keep a track of patient’s record and provide them appropriate medications as per symptoms, diagnosis and allergies to any particular medications.  Thus. Computers help in improving overall patient care and drug management. Major use of computers in Pharmacy: 1. Manage patient’s record 2. Enter drug orders 3. Monitor drug interactions or allergies, if any. 4. Automated dispensing 5. Inventory control 6. Medical research and analysis Computers in Pharmacy:  Patient profileAllows complete information about patients  Billingchecks policies of third parties such as HMO’s and insurers; authorizes third party transactions and credit cards electronically.  Prescriber’s profileincludes state identification numbers and affiliations with facilities and insurers.  Labeling creates label, receipt, customer information and usage instruction. Drug information storage and retrieval  Drug information storage and retrieval refers to the process of compiling data and available information on a particular drug that can be assessed as and when required.  Computers have made it possible to compile, assess and display the relevant data on a given drug. Types of storage media 1) Hard DriveIt is found inside the computer and is used to store all programs used by computers 2) Floppy Diskit is a portable storage medium that can be used as per requirement. It can store a large amount of data. 3) CD/DVDIt is also an external device which can be used to store information. 4) USB Flash DriveIt is comparatively smaller than other storage devices and can be used to store more amount of data. Type your text Downloaded from HK Technical PGIMS BP205T_Chapter-3_Applications of Computers in Pharmacy 2 Components of Information retrieval 1. Database: It refers to the system of recording and storing data in the storage medium. It is a type of electronic filing information. 2. Search mechanism: It refers to the mechanism of retrieval of recorded data. It shows how relevant data needs to be searched and retrieved by any user. 3. Interface: It refers to the exchange of information between two or more components of a computer system. It determines whether the given system is user friendly or not. Types of Information Retrieval 1. Online information retrieval: It refers to searching and analyzing data through various systems which are connected to each other. E.g. list of doctors in hospital. 2. CD Room Information Retrieval: It refers to retrieval of that information which has already been stored on CD room. It works when other computers are not connected to user’s system. The data is available as read only information which can be used as per requirement. 3. OPAC (Online Public Assess Catalogs): It refers to that information which can be widely used by various users at a time and is readily available free of cost to any number of users. E.g. University Library 4. Web Information Retrieval: It refers to World-Wide-Web search which is most commonly used over the world. Such information can be used by anyone, anywhere and anytime. Only internet connectivity is required. It is not related to a particulat topic or category. E.g. Google search.  Unlike other information systems, drug information storage refers to storage and retrieval of information related to any drug and its uses. Such system are required by all medical personnel to access relevant information about various drugs whether it is either dosage, usage, mode of action, side effects, drug interactions, shelf life or any such detail. Need of drug information  The number of drugs in the international market has increased very much  The newer drugs are generally more potent and selective, and formulation becoming increasingly complex  The literate on drugs has also expanded and covers a wide range of information  To introduce a new drug into the practice, the professionals need to evaluate the given information.  A simple, quick reference to a pharmacopoeia or formulary is no longer sufficient. Downloaded from HK Technical PGIMS BP205T_Chapter-3_Applications of Computers in Pharmacy 3 Pharmacokinetics  It is study of science which determines how a living organism affects any drug administered to him.  Pharmacodynamics determines the effect of any drug on living organisms.  Pharmacokinetics studies the pathway of drug from when it enters the body till its excretion. It can be studied under 4 categories as ADME namely: i. Absorption: refers to movement of medicine from the site of administration into the blood stream.  Rate of absorption depend upon the mode of administrations of drug. ii. Distribution: refers to transport of administered medications from blood stream to its site of action. It is determined rate of blood flow to that particular area. iii. Metabolism: refers to breakdown of administered drug into its active form to produce the desired action. It is determined by amount and consistency of administered drug. iv. Excretion: refers to elimination of administered drug from the body. It is usually done by kidney and liver. Also excreted through sweat, saliva, tears etc.  Pharmacokinetics refers to behavior of drug inside the human body. It is due to study of pharmacokinetics that medical personnel can evaluate the amount of dose as well as schedule of dosage for any drug. i.e. how much medicine needs to be administered and how many times a day. Mathematical model in drug design  Mathematical model in drug design refers to study of mathematical calculations that have been implemented to estimate compositions, dimensions and preparation procedures of various drug delivery systems. Such systems are necessary to evaluate an effective method of drug delivery in order to get desired results in shortest possible time and with best available techniques. In this way, number of experiments conducted during product development can be reduced in order to save time and cost.  Mathematical models are used to analyze pharmacological data and its response during a particular investigation. Such kind of research is termed as Model Based Drug Development (MBDD). Its main objective is to provide quantitative assessment of effectiveness and safety of any drug. If efficacy and safety can be estimated during drug development, it can save a lot of time and reduce cost of actual development process. Downloaded from HK Technical PGIMS BP205T_Chapter-3_Applications of Computers in Pharmacy 4 Use of mathematical model  Solves the real world problems and has become wide spread due to increasing computation power and computing methods.  Facilitated to handle large scale and complicated problems.  This branch of science deals with study of treatment of patients with various drugs that can be used in a hospital or clinical setup.  Hospital Pharmacy: refers to a place within the hospital where all the drugs and medications are stored in order to provide in house treatment to patients that have been admitted in that hospital.  Hospital pharmacies usually do not provide medicines to out patients and hence they are not considered as retail pharmacies.  A hospital pharmacy is responsible for supplying safe and accurate medicine to its patients. Functions of Hospital Pharmacy 1. Ensure purchase and proper storage of drugs 2. Label all drug containers properly 3. Ensure proper storage conditions as cold storage and refrigeration. 4. Dispense drugs as per prescription. 5. Discard expired medicines and order fresh stock 6. Ensure timely stock audit and its provision 7. Maintain proper records related to drugs, their manufacturing, expiry etc. 8. Provide support in research and training programs organized within the hospital. 9. Ensure availability of right medication at the right time and at minimal cost to the patient 10. Act as counselors between doctors, nurses and attendants of patients. Clinical Pharmacy: refers to study of science dealing with best utilization of pharmacist’s experience and knowledge to provide safest medication during the course of effective patient care.  The clinical pharmacy came into existence in order to minimize practice of selfmedications which can further lead to various complications. Downloaded from HK Technical PGIMS BP205T_Chapter-3_Applications of Computers in Pharmacy 5 Functions of Clinical Pharmacy 1) Ensure maintenance of complete patient record like drug reactions, medications, allergies, hypersensitivity etc. 2) Save physician’s time and efforts to decide best treatment of any patient. 3) Train and assist medical supervisor or physician about various drug complications, interactions, dosage, efficacies etc. 4) Assist physician in selecting best drug therapy for a particular patient. 5) Keep a close track of any drug reactions or contraindications among the patients. 6) Handle medical emergency in case of overdose or poisoning by providing best available antidote. 7) Assist in discharge counseling related to OTC drug medications as per patients’ response to undergoing drug therapy.  Thus, we can say that clinical pharmacist are experts in handling and recommending best therapeutic use if medications. Applications of computers in Hospital and Clinical Pharmacy  Maintain and assess patient records  Maintain and assess drug records  Evaluate stock and its timely updation  Discard expiry and near expiry medications  Ensure proper and timely supply of medications  Review contraindications, overdose or any other adverse reactions among the patients.  Detailed study on various medications available in pharmacy.  Attend online research and training programs Electronic prescribing and discharge systems (EP Systems)  Electronic prescription refers to computer based medical prescription which is generated online.  It has replaced use of pen and paper.  It allows nurse, doctor, pharmacist and patient’s attendant to clearly look into the prescription.  Pharmacist can dispense the medications at a faster rate without any errors.  It ensures accurate and error free dispensing.  It reduces the chance of self-medications and overdose of medications.  The major drawback of hand written prescription is illegible or bad handwriting which may sometimes lead to major complications. Downloaded from HK Technical PGIMS BP205T_Chapter-3_Applications of Computers in Pharmacy 6 1. Error free dispensing 2. Automated and faster refill of ongoing treatment 3. Track any overdose, drug interactions or allergies 4. Track whether a prescription has been refilled or not 5. Provide better record maintenance services as detailed information about the patient is available right from the start of treatment 6. Reduce chances of self-medication and overdoses 7. Keep a track of prescription related to controlled substances or narcotic drugs.  Electronic discharge system: refers to documenting a discharge order online instead of paper based filing process. Barcode medicine identification and automated dispensing of drugs  Barcode Medication Identification and Automated Dispensing refer to system of dispensing medications that uses barcodes for identification in order to prevent human errors.  This system of dispensing ensures accurate dispensing to the right patient, at the right time, in the right amount and through the right method of administration. Benefits of Barcode Medicine Identification dispensing  The barcode medicine identification dispensing has been formulated to ensure “Five Right” of the patient:  Right Medicine  Right Patient  Right Dose  Right Time  Right mode of administration  This system of dispensing also reduced time gap between actual prescription and dispensing. Further, it is useful for managing inventory as well as billing.  Barcode dispensing is faster, easier, more manageable and error free mode of dispensing medications.  Automated Dispensing Cabinets (ADC) Downloaded from HK Technical PGIMS BP205T_Chapter-3_Applications of Computers in Pharmacy 7 Mobile technology and adherence monitoring  Mobile technology and adherence monitoring refers to the process of monitoring medical practices that have been inculcated in improving patient care in medical practices.  Adherence monitoring is related to evaluation of patient’s commitment level to the doctor related to a particular medical service.  Increased medication adherence leads to improved patient health.  Computer and technology plays a major role in bringing the whole world to a new platform called advanced healthcare management.  Pharma Information System refers to use of information technology in the field of pharmaceutical industry.  The science of technology that deals with storage, retrieval and use of information related medical industry and pharmaceutical drugs known as Pharma information system.  It helps in utilizing best available medicines under particular condition.  Pharma Information system is necessary to ensure faster and accurate decision making regarding pharmaceutical practices. Benefits of Pharma Information System  Faster  Easier  Error-free  High reach to people  Expert advice  Safer practice  Increased efficacy  Reduced cost  Increased knowledge  Qualitative assessment  Pharma information system serves as a bridge between IT professionals and clinical experts that acts as a huge resource of information on pharmaceutical healthcare management and services. Downloaded from HK Technical PGIMS



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