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Antiviral drugs Short Notes

BPharmacy, 6th Semester, 2021 - Notes

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Antiviral drugs Short Notes BPharmacy 6th semester 2021 Previous Year's Question Papers/Notes Download - HK Technical PGIMS

Antiviral Drugs B.Pharmacy 6 th Semester SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMSVirus Viruses are the smallest infective agents, consisting essentially of nucleic acid (either RNA or DNA) enclosed in a protein coat or capsid. A virus cannot replicate on its own. It must attach to and enter a host cell. It then uses the host cell’s energy to synthesize protein, DNA, and RNA. Viruses are difficult to kill because they live inside the cells. Any drug that kills a virus may also kill cells Antiviral Drugs SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMSVirus & Viral Infection • Antiviral drugs are drugs that are destructive to viruses. • The viral infection is the infection or disease caused by one of 200 (approximately) viruses which are pathogenic to human. • The viral diseases are including mumps, small pox and measles. • The diagnosis of the cause of infections is possible by serological tests, microscopic examination and skin tests. • Similarly, viremia is the presence of viruses in the blood. Antiviral Drugs SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMSSteps of Virus Synthesis 1. Virion bind to host cell 2. Virus penetrate and enter the cell by endocytosis mechanism 3. Virus uncoats and dissembles, introducing the genetic material as RNA in to cell. 4. Reverse transcriptase converts viral RNA in to DNA. 5. An integrase incorporates DNA IN to the cell' chromosomes 6. Cell produce new viral RNA, which is the template for proteins synthesis. 7. A protease hydroxylase viral proteins into several small subunit 8. and new virus capsules (virion) are formed and are extruded from the host cell by exocytosis, infecting new cell. Antiviral Drugs SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMSAntiviral Drugs SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMSClassification of Antiviral Drugs 1. Anti-Herpes virus 2. Anti-Influenza virus 3. Anti-Retrovirus 1. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor(NRTIs) 2. Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors(NNRTIs) 3. Protease inhibitors 4. Nonselective antiviral drugs Antiviral Drugs SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMSAnti-Herpes Virus Drugs • Acyclovir • Valacyclovir • Famciclovir • Ganciclovir • Foscarnet •Idoxuridine Antiviral Drugs SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMSAnti-Influenza Virus Drugs •Rimantadine •Amantadine Antiviral Drugs SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMSAnti-Retrovirus Drugs a) Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs): • Zidovudine (AZT) • Didanosine • Zalcitabine • Stavudine • Lamivudine • Abacavir b) Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors(NNRTIs): • Delavirdine • Nevirapine • Efavirenz c) Protease inhibitors • Indinavir • Nelfinavir • Ritonavir • Saquinavir • Amprenayir • Lopinavir Antiviral Drugs SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMSNonselective Antiviral Drugs Nonselective antiviral drugs ➢Ribavirin ➢Lamivudine ➢Adefovir ➢Dipivoxil ➢Interferon ➢Human Immunoglobulins Antiviral Drugs SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMSThank You Antiviral Drugs SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIM

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