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PPT on r-DNA Technology Biotech B.Pharmacy 6th Semester

BPharmacy, 6th Semester, 2021 - Notes

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PPT on r-DNA Technology Biotech B.Pharmacy 6th Semester BPharmacy 6th semester 2021 Previous Year's Question Papers/Notes Download - HK Technical PGIMS

  1. 1. Brief introduction about r-DNA technology  A series of procedures that are used to join together (recombine) DNA segments.  A recombinant DNA molecule is constructed from segments of two or more different DNA molecules.  Under certain conditions, a r-DNA molecule can enter a cell and replicate there, either on its own or after it has been integrated into a chromosome.  Since the focus of all genetics is the gene, the fundamental goal of laboratory geneticists is to isolate, characterize, and manipulate genes. Application of r-DNA Technology SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMS
  2. 2. Application of r-DNA Technology SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMS Step in r-DNA technology
  3. 3. Applications of r-DNA Application of r-DNA Technology SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMS
  4. 4. Production of vaccine  Introduce live attenuated  Acquired immunity  r-DNA can be used to clone gene for protective protein.  Example- HB, influenza, HIV Vaccine Application of r-DNA Technology SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMS
  5. 5. Production of Recombinant HB Vaccine Application of r-DNA Technology SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMS
  6. 6. Production of hormones Insulin: It controls the glucose level in humans. By r-DNA technology, cloning of human insulin gene is done. Availability of insulin. Human growth hormone: Role in growth, regeneration or differentiation. Application of r-DNA Technology SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMS
  7. 7. Biosynthesis of Interferons  Interferons have antiviral as well as anti-cancerous properties.  Virus infected cells produce very little quantity of Interferon.  By r-DNA technology, the genetic factor of human fibroblasts is introduced into the bacterial plasmid.  These genetically engineered bacteria are cloned  and cultured. Application of r-DNA Technology SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMS
  8. 8. Production of antibiotics ● They denatured the harmful living pathogens. ● Antibiotics manufactured by microbes are very useful for human. ● r-DNA technology benefits in surging the manufacturing of antibiotics by enlightening the microbial strain via genetic characteristics modification. Application of r-DNA Technology SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMS
  9. 9. Monoclonal antibodies  Antibodies are specific protein produced by the immune system in response to antigen.  Monoclonal antibodies produce from single clone of antigen. That's why are monospecific in nature.  Used for diagnosis of disease, Pregnancy and treatment of cancer Application of r-DNA Technology SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMS
  10. 10. Application of r-DNA Technology SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMS Procedure of Mono Clonal Antibody by r-DNA Technology
  11. 11. Molecular Diagnosis of disease  Infectious diseases diagnosis mainly depends upon isolation and identification of pathogens, which may take several days.  Development of diagnostic kits to identify pathogenic organisms by knowing the organism-specific DNA sequence has provided rapid, specific and correct diagnosis.  Various diagnostic kits have been developed for AIDS, cancer, foot and mouth diseases, tuberculosis, etc. Application of r-DNA Technology SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMS
  12. 12. DNA Fingerprinting  Dr. Alec Jeffreys developed DNA fingerprinting technique.  Every person have its unique finger patterns that differs from other individual.  There is possibility to alter these patterns but specific principle is unknown. Finger prints are detected on the basis of number of highly polymorphic genes i.e. VNTR's. Application of r-DNA Technology SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMS
  13. 13. Application of r-DNA Technology SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMS Brief introduction about r-DNA technology
  14. 14. Gene Therapy  Injects functional genes into a cell to replace missing or defective genes in order to correct genetic disorders.  A gene that is inserted directly into a cell usually does not function. Instead, a carrier called a vector is genetically engineered to deliver the gene.  Gene therapy may be done in-vivo or e-vivo. Application of r-DNA Technology SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMS
  15. 15. Application of r-DNA Technology SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMS Gene Therapy
  16. 16. Application of r-DNA in environment  We can use recombinant DNA technology in environment to clean up the environment  Measure the presence of hazardous compounds  By recombinant DNA technology we can remediate environmental pollutants.  Waste product of agriculture have cellulose that do not easily decompose.  By Recombinant DNA technology plastic degradation can be enhanced by genetically modified organisms.  Degrade oil spills or organic waste. Application of r-DNA Technology SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMS
  17. 17.  Used in development of bioindicators  bacteria have been genetically modified as 'bioluminescors' that give off light in response to several chemical pollutants. Application of r-DNA Technology SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMS Application of r-DNA in environment
  18. 18. These are being used to measure the presence of some hazardous chemicals in the environment.  Other genetic sensors that can be used to detect various chemical contaminants are also undergoing trials  and include sensors that can be used to track how pollutants are naturally degrading in ground water. Application of r-DNA Technology SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMS Application of r-DNA in environment
  19. 19. Application of r-DNA in agriculture  Recombinant DNA technology can be used for insertion of genes in plants not only from related plant species, but also from unrelated species such as microorganisms.  used for the production of transgenic plants with higher yield nutritional values.  increased resistance to stress and pests. Application of r-DNA Technology SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMS
  20. 20. Used In  Development of plant having improved yield.  Development of stress tolerant plant.  Transgenic plant as a source of biopharmaceuticals. Application of r-DNA Technology SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMS
  21. 21. Plant with improved yield Genes are inserted into plants to increase their yield.  Researchers at Japan's National Institute of Agrobiological Resources added maize photosynthesis genes to rice.  Increased yields by 30 percent. Application of r-DNA Technology SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMS
  22. 22. Stress tolerated plants Plant resistance to environmental stress:  rDNA technology is used to develop crops that can tolerate abiotic stress.  Genetically modified tomato and canola plants that tolerate salt levels 300 percent greater than normal. Application of r-DNA Technology SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMS
  23. 23. Herbicide resistance plants  Roundup is an herbicide but it kills almost all species of plants.  using rDNA technology, modified EPSP synthase gene (that produced enzymes that were still functional but were not inhibited by glyphosate) have  been introduced into crop plants  such as cotton and soyabean. Application of r-DNA Technology SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMS
  24. 24. Insect resistance plants Cry genes (popularly known as Bt genes) from a bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis are isolated. Then plant is modified using this gene. e.g. cotton, rice, maize, potato, brinjal, cauliflower, cabbage etc.) with Bt genes have been developed. Application of r-DNA Technology SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMS
  25. 25. Plants are modified to produce resistance against diseases. e.g tobacco was first modified to produce resistance against tobacco mosaic virus. Disease resistance plants: Application of r-DNA Technology SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMS
  26. 26. Production of biopharmaceutical  rDNA used to produce a plant that will generate a seed that expresses a desired therapeutic protein.  Then seed stock is use for producing the desired protein.  The desired protein can be extracted from the seed.  E.g In corn biopharmaceuticals are produced. Application of r-DNA Technology SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMS
  27. 27. Edible vaccine  The genes encoding antigenic proteins can be isolated from the pathogens.  Expressed in plants producing antigens can be eaten for vaccination/immunization (edible vaccines).  E.g In banana and tomato edible vaccines are made. Application of r-DNA Technology SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMS
  28. 28. Application of r-DNA in Industry  Traditional industrial microbiology is merged with molecular biology to yield improved recombinant processes for the industrial production.  primary and secondary metabolites, protein biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes are formed for industrial usage Application of r-DNA Technology SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMS
  29. 29. Vitamins  Vitamin B, is produced commercially by direct fermentation utilizing the fungus Ashbya gossypii  Vitamin B12 is produced by a direct fermentation utilizing streptomyces species such as streptomycin griseus.  Vitamin C is produced by utilizing Gluconobacter oxydans. Application of r-DNA Technology SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMS
  30. 30. Amino Acids  E: coli and cloning vector pBR322 were used to increase the genes for the production of amino acids e.g. glutamic acid, lysine, phenylalanine, valine.  amino acids, L-glutamate (MSG) and L-lysine, mostly used as feed and food additives. Application of r-DNA Technology SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMS
  31. 31. Production of enzymes Application of r-DNA Technology SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMS
  32. 32. Application of r-DNA Technology SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMS
  33. 33. Application of r-DNA Technology SDPGIPS Rohtak – HK Technical PGIMS



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